Antibody (Ab)   
An antibody is a specialized protein of the immune system that identifies and neutralizes foreign substances in the body such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or even toxins.  This large Y-shaped protein is produced by B cells (a specific type of immune cells, see also “antigen-presenting cells” and “B cells”). It contains a variable region that adapts to each foreign substance to help the body to direct the appropriate downstream immune response.

For additional information see:
http://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibody-What-is-an-Antibody.aspx

Antigen    
An antigen is any foreign component that triggers an immune response. Antigens are recognized by antibodies that in turn direct the immune response. The term “antigen” historically comes from antibody generator. Antigens themselves can be proteins or polysaccharides. They are often components of the invading microorganism such as their cell wall or release toxins. Antigens can also be intentionally given in the form of vaccines in order to induce immunity in the recipient.

For additional information see:
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Antigen.html

Antigen-presenting cells  
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) are immunocompetent cells (including macrophages, dendritic cells, and B- lymphocytes, among others) that display acquired foreign components known as antigens on their surface. APCs are in turn recognized by T and B lymphocytes which initiate the elimination and/or neutralization of the infectious agent. Different APCs activate distinct immune responses.

For additional information see: 
https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/immune-system-21/adaptive-immunity-198/antigen-presenting-cells-979-8495/

α-Synuclein (α-Syn)     
Alpha-Synuclein is a small abundant protein mainly found in synapses where neurons communicate with each other. In pathological conditions including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Alpha-synuclein forms aggregates of insoluble fibrils called Lewy bodies. Alpha-synuclein is important for normal development of cognitive functions such as spatial learning and working memory.

For additional information see:
https://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?alpha-synuclein

Akinesia 
A decrease or loss of control of voluntary muscle movements often resulting in muscle rigidity.

For additional information see:
http://www.parkinsons.org/parkinsons-symptoms.html

Autoimmunity   
Autoimmunity is an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues that are normally present in the body. There are more than 50 recognized autoimmune diseases. The development of autoimmunity is also a major risk during immunotherapy using self-antigens, especially in the case of vaccines.

For additional information see:
http://www.healthline.com/health/autoimmune-disorders

B Cells
B cells are a type of white blood cell and an important part of the adaptive immune system. Immature B cells, in mammals, develop in bone marrow. The primary functions of B cells are to make antibodies against antigens, and to develop memory B cells following their activation though interacting with an antigen. Memory B cells have a long lifespan and are able to respond quickly following a second exposure to the same antigen.

For additional information see:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/

Bradykinesia    
A general slowness of movement caused by reduced levels of dopamine to the brain. It is one of the earliest signs of a movement disorder and affects up to 90% of patients suffering from Parkinson´s disease.

For additional information see: 
http://www.epda.eu.com/en/pd-info/symptoms/bradykinesia/

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)  
Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of the protein alpha-synuclein that develop in nerve cells in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies. This disease is characterized by widespread presence of Lewy bodies composed of the protein alpha-synuclein. Pathological alterations involve cortical areas leading to dementia. These protein clumps are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.

For additional information see:  
http://www.alz.org/dementia/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-symptoms.asp

Epitope
An epitope is the name for the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system and to which an antibody binds. Epitopes can be composed of sugars, lipids or amino acids.

For additional information see:  
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/genomics/method/Epitopetags.html

Framework Programme 7 (FP7)
The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is the EU’s main instrument for funding research in Europe. It is running from 2007 to 2013.

For additional information see: 
http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp7/index_en.cfm

Multiple system atrophy (MSA)   
MSA is a rare orphaned neurodegenerative disease with Parkinson -like symptoms. It is both rapidly progressing and fatal, usually leading to the death of the patient within 6-9 years of diagnosis. No effective treatment is currently available. The symptoms of multiple system atrophy are partially caused by an over-expression of α-Syn in the oligodendroglia (a specific type of glial cell in the central nervous system, see also “oligodendroglia”) which form the protective myelin sheath of nerve cells.

For additional information see:   
http://www.msawareness.org/?page_id=3

Neurodegenerative disease (ND)   
Neurodegenerative disease refers to disorders that are associated with progressive loss of structure or functions of neurons, including death of neuronal cells. Some of the most common neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, among others. Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of aberrant proteins or protein fragments, which accumulate in the brain due to their resistance to proteolytic degradation.

For additional information see: 
http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-What-is-Neurodegeneration.aspx

Oligodendroglia   
Oligodendoglia are closely related to nerve cells. Their main function is to provide support and insulation to the nerve cell axons (specific parts of neurons). They form the insulating myelin sheath of axons in the central nervous system. The symptoms of multiple system atrophy are partially caused by an over-expression of α-Syn in the oligodendroglia.

For additional information see: 
http://www.news-medical.net/news/20120711/Oligodendroglia-cells-An-interview-with-Jeffrey-Rothstein.aspx

Parkinson´s disease (PD)  
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of neurons in different brain regions but particularly in the substantia nigra which produces dopamin and plays a crucial role in the coordination of movements. Major symptoms are movement-related and include shaking (tremor), rigidity (stiffness), slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. The pathology of the disease is characterized by the accumulation of a protein called alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) into inclusions called Lewy bodies in neurons. Current treatments are effective at managing the early motor symptoms of the disease.

For additional information see: 
http://www.pdf.org/en/about_pd

Peptide  
A peptide is a short chain of amino acid monomers. Peptides are distinguished from proteins based on their comparatively smaller size (in general 50 amino acids or less). Peptides often have a signaling function within the body.

For additional information see: 
http://www.peptideguide.com/

Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism is an overarching term for neurological conditions characterized by the appearance of specific movement issues including tremor, hypokinesia, and rigidity, among others. Parkinsonism derives its names from Parkinson´s disease; however, it refers specifically to the set of symptoms, and not to the neurodegenerative disease. There are a number of causes of Parkinsonism including, but not limited to Parkinson´s disease, side-effects of some medications, some toxins and unspecific etiology of neurodegeneration such as insufficient perfusion of the brain. The risk of drug and medication-induced Parkinsonism increases with age.

For additional information see: 
http://www.movementdisorders.org/disorders/parkinson.php

Pure autonomic failure (PAF)
Pure autonomic failure is a degenerative disease of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) often occurring in patients later in life, following middle age. Symptoms include dizziness and fainting, visual disturbances and neck pain.

For additional information see: 
http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID=32

Synapse   
A synapse is a structure between nerve cells that allows for chemical or electrical signals to be passed to another cell. Synapses are required for neuronal function.  The word “synapse” comes from Greek synapsis “conjunction,” from synaptein “to clasp,” from syn- “together” and haptein “to fasten”). Synapses also play an important role in memory formation.

For additional information see: 
http://www.biologymad.com/nervoussystem/synapses.htm

T Cells
T cells are a type of white blood cell that is important in cell mediated immunity. They are referred to as T cells because they develop in the thymus (an organ of the immune system located at the throat). There are a number of subtypes of T-cells including helper, cytotoxic, memory, and regulatory T cells, among others. A deficiency of T cells or decreased function of individual T cells as a result of disease, leads to immunodeficiency.

For additional information see: 
http://www.tcells.org/beginners/tcells/

Therapeutic Vaccine   
A therapeutic vaccine is a vaccine that is administered after someone has contracted an illness with the intention of lessening the severity of the disease in order to treat a condition that has already developed.

For additional information see: 
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-therapeutic-vaccine.htm

T helper cells (TH Cells)
They are a subtype of T cells, white blood cells, that play an important role in the adaptive immune system. TH Cells release T-cell cytokines (a broad category of small proteins that play an important role in cell signaling) that aid in the activity of other immune cells. Mature Th cells are referred to CD4+ T cells because they express a specific surface protein, CD4. There are a number of disorders that result in the absence or dysfunction of CD4+ T cells, many of which are fatal.

For additional information see: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26827/